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SGS India Ltd. v. Dolphin International Ltd.

Consumer Law – The onus of proof that there was deficiency in service is on the complainant.

If the complainant is able to discharge its initial onus, the burden would then shift to the respondent in the complaint. The rule of evidence before the civil proceedings is that the onus would lie on the person who would fail if no evidence is led by the other side. Therefore, the initial burden of proof of deficiency in service was on the complainant, but having failed to prove that the result of the sample retained by the appellant at the time of consignment was materially different than what was certified by the appellant, the burden of proof would not shift on the appellant. Thus, the Commission has erred in law to draw adverse inference against the appellant. [Para 22]

Consumer Law – Deficiency of Service Agricultural produce transported via ship.

The appellant herein is a testing, inspection and certification company that tests the quality and quantity of several products. The complainant engaged the appellant for providing services for inspection of groundnut procured by the complainant for the purpose of exporting the same to Greece and Netherlands. The complainant has not produced best evidence which they were expected to produce in respect of the test results of the samples sent by the appellant to the port of destination. There could be a deficiency of service only if the complainant was able to prove that the certificate issued by the appellant at the time of dispatch and the samples sent to the complainant or his agents is materially different. In the absence of any such proof, the appellant cannot be held deficient in service. In the absence of any proof of negligence on the part of the appellant at the time of loading of the consignment, the appellant cannot be held responsible if at the port of destination, the products specifications were not the same as certified by the appellant at the time of loading of consignment. In the absence of any clause in the contract to ensure that the goods consigned has to meet the products specifications at the time of loading of consignment, the appellant cannot be held liable for change in specifications of the agricultural produce at the destination port after being in transit for two months on the high seas. [Paras 24 & 25]